Client: Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment Year: 2012 Output: Spatial models for the future development of Schiphol Airport and the Amsterdam Metropolitan Region. Project: How to balance future economic developments in the Amsterdam Metropolitan region with the noise pollution contours of one of Europe’s busiest airports? Although limits of the noise contours have been legally set, the way they could be interpreted varies. This opens a playing field in which local politics, private parties and environmental agents act and follow their individual interests. The project entitled SMASH generated three spatial models of the playing field until 2040 through a series of large conferences and workshops with many stakeholders involved. These models are input for the national policy of the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment for the airport and the metropolitan region around.
Picture: Kitty Terwolbeck, Creative Commons
Client: Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment / Municipality of Almere Year: 2012 Output: Spatial Economic Strategy / 5 Films
Project: For the main exhibition of the 5th International Architecture Biennale in Rotterdam SmartCityStudio created five spatial economic strategies that conceptualise how 100.000 new jobs in Almere could be created. In dialogue with the municipality of the new town of Almere, entrepreneurs in the city and with the Dutch National government SmartCityStudio created five narratives around community wind power and algae production, small enterprises, healthcare, a special economic zone and an open economy. These Smart economic strategies should ‘liberate’ Almere from an outdated culture of control and create the conditions for citizens and entrepreneurs to act. SCS illustrated these strategies in five short films. Have a look at the film below or click one of the links.
Client: Rotterdam Region, The Hague Region Year: 2010-2011, 2011-2012 Project: Development of living environment indicators with the Rosetta method in order to regionally gear housing projects to one another. For decades housing in the Netherlands has been driven by quantitative supply. Now that the market came to a standstill local and regional governments rethink their housing projects in terms of demand instead of supply and in terms of quality instead of quantity. This requires fundamental other instruments to compare housing projects to one another. SmartCityStudio developed the Rosetta index: A set of indicators and a vocabulary to benchmark quality in the living environment. Rosetta is being built up in collaboration which each of the municipalities of the region. With Rosetta the political discussion on reduction and differentiation of housing projects can be aligned along a shared vocabulary and overview of projects. The Rosetta legend became the basis for ‘de Grote Woontest’, a consumer research on housing demand that involved over 15.000 inhabitants in the region.
As reported in the Economist this week, Ho Chi Minh City “must take drastic action to prevent flooding”. The low-lying city with over 8 million inhabitants could learn from the Dutch that developed Smart strategies to cope with peak levels in its rivers.
According to the Economist “yet nearly half of the city lies less than one metre above sea level…”and scientists say groundwater extraction in Ho Chi Minh City causes land subsidence may be having a huge unseen effect to the city of which nearly 70% is already vulnerable to extreme flooding.”…”Flood risks are rising in Ho Chi Minh City’s lower lying districts, in part because the property boom that accompanied Vietnam’s 2007 entry to the World Trade Organisation led many developers to build wherever they could” and because of “poor immigrants who build flimsy shacks in the city’s swampy outskirts”. Instead of only investing in a plan that comprises of over 170 km of dikes to protect urban areas Dutch strategies like the ‘Room for the River’ program might offer new useful insights in how to create flood-control solutions that are sustainable. The Dutch ‘Room for the River’ program is not fighting the water with investing in dikes that have to be heightened every decade. ‘Room for the River’ offers a dynamic systems that offers solutions for the increasing amounts of water in the Dutch rivers and the gradually subsiding land behind the dikes. The ‘Room for the River’ project literally creates more room for the river and with that guaranteeing the safety of over 4 million people living in risk areas along it. Work is carried out in more than 30 locations and interventions comprise of for example high water channels that branches of the river and offer separate routes for high water or temporary water storage areas.
Some of the interventions go hand in hand with the development of urban areas that take water management as a basis for urban planning. The ‘Room for the River’ program is more than progressive engineering. Above all it is a paradigm shift from a defensive ‘total control’ attitude towards a concept with a dynamic system that creates new spatial opportunities within the river landscape. The dynamics of the Dutch water system itself is accurately mapped by ‘Rijkswaterstaat’ the governmental department that is responsible for the design and maintenance of the main infrastructure facilities in the Netherlands. Reliable water data is of great importance for controlling the flood barriers, sluices and pumping stations and the assessment of water quality. Therefore ‘Rijkswaterstaat’s measures include the daily tides, wave height and water quality. They also calculate water levels and wave forecasts. Something for Ho Chi Minh City to have a look at. To have total control with ‘hardware’ like dikes only will on the long term be very money-consuming. The dynamic ‘Room for the River’ project together with accurate data on water levels (the ‘software’) will set the example for future flood-control solutions across the globe. For a short introduction on the ‘Room for the River’ project have a look at the corporate video of Rijkswaterstaat. Picture: Ho Chi Minh City by Brian K. Smith. Sources: SmartCityStudio, Rijkswaterstaat, the Economist.
In the UK cities have gained more power and control over their own urban planning. This decentralization of power offers them the possibility to invest in infrastructure and regeneration projects. They can claim future tax receipts of their local businesses directly from the state if they come up with a plan.
At least two of six key principles of the City Deals put forward by Whitehall in London are Smart: “Putting cities in the driving seat: cities, not Whitehall, are best placed to understand the economic opportunities and challenges they face. Many have already taken the initiative and begun to develop credible economic strategies, and these will be the starting point for our work with cities. Focusing on the wider metro area: Encouraging deals across the wider economic area has clear merits in terms of scale, geographical reach and economic governance. Deals will be negotiated with groups of authorities across a functional economic area.” The first wave of City Deals are being made with: Greater Birmingham, Bristol City Region, Leeds City Region, Liverpool City Region, Greater Manchester City, Newcastle City Region, Nottingham City Region, Sheffield City Region. The second wave will invite twenty other cities and their wider areas. Picture: Manchester Skyline by Andrew Brooks